Hier behandelte sie auch psychotische Patienten. Spitz zur Berliner Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung. Die Ehe wurde in den USA geschieden. Dort lernte sie Harry Stack Sullivan kennen, von dessen interpersoneller Theorie sie stark beeinflusst wurde. April im Chestnut Lodge; als offizielle Todesursache wurde eine Koronarthrombose angegeben. Im Rahmen ihrer Forschungen zur Entstehung und Therapie der Schizophrenie befasste sie sich auch mit der manisch-depressiven Psychose.
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She was raised in a middle-class Orthodox Jewish family and was the oldest of three daughters; her sisters were Grete and Anna. She came from a large, supportive and impactful family. Her paternal great grandfather had 93 grandchildren and her extended family played an important role in her life.
Her mother was part of a group that established a preparatory school for girls in to prepare them for university because girls were not permitted to attend Gymnasium.
Due to the stresses of this impairment and the impending end of his career, Adolf died by suicide in At age 36, Frieda began an affair with her patient, Erich Seligmann Fromm , who was a student of psychoanalysis and social psychology. The couple agreed that Erich would move to Switzerland to undergo specialized treatment and to live apart.
However, after Erich immigrated into the United States of America in , he sponsored her affidavit to flee Germany after Nazi occupation in They officially divorced in Frieda never remarried and never had biological children. Despite having no biological children, Frieda served as a "mother" figure to her patients, friends, and family. During World War II, she financially supported more than a dozen family and friends, and advocated for their safe escape from persecution by the Nazis.
Although she pleaded with her sisters and mother to also emigrate to the United States, they remained in England and Palestine. Frieda developed deep meaningful friendships with colleagues Gertrud Jacob and Hilde Bruch , loved to play piano and listen to classical music, and dote on her beloved cocker spaniels.
She suffered from a hereditary deafness and died from a heart attack in at her home at the Chestnut Lodge in Rockville, MD. Educational and Professional History[ edit ] Because Adolf Reichmann had no sons, Frieda was granted privileges other Orthodox Jewish women were not allowed. Her mother, who was trained as a teacher, strongly encouraged higher education for women. She received her medical degree in and began a residency in neurology studying brain injuries with Kurt Goldstein, a neurologist and psychiatrist.
Her work led to a better understanding of the physiology and pathology of brain functions. She also studied neurology and dementia praecox. Her approach to treatment emerged from her research with Kurt Goldstein. To further her psychotherapy skills, she pursued psychoanalytic training at the Berlin Institute. She used "whatever worked with each individual" and relied "on the patients own inherent capacity for healing to guide the treatment".
She also recognized the role of trauma in mental illness and started to understand the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship. She focused on early life experiences that affected her patients and their ability to understand the world. Fromm-Reichmann viewed her patients as people who need help overcoming an illness. She believed a psychiatric hospital could be a therapeutic institution with individualized treatment that reflected the idiosyncratic needs of each patient.
During her time at the Lodge she emphasized communicating understanding in her work with individuals with schizophrenia and that psychotic communication contained meaning. She collaborated with other doctors at the Lodge to make the hospital a psychoanalytic benchmark for the treatment of psychosis.
She utilized the concepts of transference and resistance, as well as the unconscious and the importance of early childhood experiences when examining personality. An empiricist at heart, Frieda continued her work to demonstrate how the use of intuition and creativity applied to psychoanalysis could treat the most severe psychosis. Ever the pioneer for women in science, Frieda was the first woman to be invited to the Macy Foundation in Having overcome many personal and professional adversities, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann inspired generations of psychologists and the American Academy of Psychoanalysis annual Frieda Fromm-Reichmann award.
The "Redeemed"[ edit ] Mrs. E told Frieda that taking her out of the restraints by herself was the starting point of her recovery; it had the connotation for her that her doctor did not consider her to be too dangerous to emerge from her mental disorder. All we can say for sure about his sort of illness is that it has its roots in the failure of the parents - commonly the mother figure - to provide emotional security in infancy.
This causes a weak ego organization, inability to give and receive love on an adult level. His wife, Hope Hale Davis , blamed Frieda for his suicide, stating, "the most elementary routine precautions had been neglected, and Hermann had used a belt to hang himself. D alternated between patient and staff for over a decade at Chestnut Lodge, eventually referred out because of the dual role conflicts. He threatened to sue Frieda and other staff due to lack of progress, but eventually was admitted to a state hospital.
Miss N. Despite these "failures", Frieda maintained respect for the patient, rolled with resistance, and remained focused on treatment goals. She argued that even efforts to act out e. She told students that a failed treatment might yield insights that could help the next case. The first five chapters of which are dedicated to the temperament of the therapist and countertransference by the therapist within treatment. She published articles on Migraine, Stereotypies, and Domineering Mothers, as well as on work with psychotics.
Heilung durch Wiederherstellung von Vertrauen. In: P. Matussek , Hg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fromm-Reichmann, F. Selected papers. Madison: International Universities Press. Reichmann, F. Berlin: Springer. New York: Other Press. Berman, L. Personal reminiscences of Frieda Fromm-Reichmann.
Cohen, R. Notes on the life and work of Frieda Fromm-Reichmann. Crowley, R. Frieda Fromm-Reichmann: recollections of a student. Green, H. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Gunst, V. Memoirs—professional and personal: a decade with Frieda Fromm-Reichmann. Hoff, S. Freida Fromm-Reichmann, the early years. Hornstein, G. Scholz, A. In: medizin - bibliothek - information 4, 1 , pp. Stanton, A.
Frieda Fromm-Reichmann Quotes
Her mother was Klara Simon Reichmann, a sharp witted, confident and energetic woman. Her father, Adolf Reichmann, was a sensitive man with a passion for music and literature. Fannie Wasserman, bore him eighteen children. He was an orthodox Jew with a love of simplicity and modesty.
Even Freud had only touched on it in passing. It might have been the young female catatonic patient who began to communicate only when Fromm-Reichmann asked her how lonely she was. Fromm-Reichmann cured Greenberg, who had been deemed incurable. Among analysts, Fromm-Reichmann, who had come to the United States from Germany to escape Hitler, was known for insisting that no patient was too sick to be healed through trust and intimacy. She figured that loneliness lay at the heart of nearly all mental illness and that the lonely person was just about the most terrifying spectacle in the world. She once chastised her fellow therapists for withdrawing from emotionally unreachable patients rather than risk being contaminated by them. Over the past half-century, academic psychologists have largely abandoned psychoanalysis and made themselves over as biologists.