# GIS FUNDAMENTALS PAUL BOLSTAD PDF

Which are most commonly compressed, raster data or vector data? We compress data so that files are easier to transfer. Raster data is most commonly compressed due to its large size and required storage space. How does an ellipse differ from a sphere?

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Which are most commonly compressed, raster data or vector data? We compress data so that files are easier to transfer. Raster data is most commonly compressed due to its large size and required storage space. How does an ellipse differ from a sphere? What is the equation for the flattening factor? Can you provide three reasons? Because different methods and measurements were used. How does it differ from the ellipsoid, or the surface of the Earth? How do we measure the position of the geoid?

The geoid is the 3D surface along which the pull of gravity is a specified constant. Where do the "horizontal" and "vertical" zero lines occur? Parallels are lines of latitude. They run east to west and trend north and south. The zero parallel line is the equator. Meridians are lines of longitute. The run north to south and trend east and west. The zero meridian is the prime meridian Greenwich meridian.

Magnetic north is approximately kilometers away from the North Pole in the direction of Northern Canada. Can you descrive how datums are developed? A datum is a reference surface. Can you define what we mean when we say there is a datum shift? A datum shift is the change in latitude and longitude locations as you change from one datum to another. A triangulation survey is a network of interlocking triangles to determine positions at survey stations. A Bilby tower is a platform for triangulation surveying.

A benchmark is a precisely surveyed point used in developing a datum. What type of projections are used in a State Plane coordinate system? The State Plane coordinate system uses the Lambert conformal conic and the transverse Mercator projections. What type of developable surface is used with a UTM projection? What are UTM zones, where is the origin of a zone, and how are negative coordinates avoided? The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is a global coordinate system that divides the Earth into zones that are 6 degrees wide in longitude and extend from 80 degrees south latitude to 84 degrees north latitude.

The UTM zones split the large areas up. The origins of the UTM coordinate system are defined differently depending on whether the zone is north or south of the equator. Zone easting coordinates are all greater than zero because the central meridian for each zone is assigned an easting value of , meters.

This effectively places the origin at a point , meters west of the central meridian. All zones are less than 1,, meters wide, ensuring that all eastings will be positive. The equator is used as the northing origin for all north zones. In zones south of the equator false northings are added to avoid negative coordinates.

How does it differ from a map projection? A datum transformation provides the latitude and longitude of a point in one datum when we know them in another datum. A map projection is a systematic rendering of points from the curved Earth surface onto a flat map surface. So they differ in that one places points on a curved surface while the other flattens the curved surface to place the point.

Is it a coordinate system? What is its main purpose? It is not a coordinate system. The main purpose of the PLSS is to identify parcels, lines and corner locations. Because there were lots of good maps that could easily be digitized. Fused - small features are combined to form a feature that appears larger Omitted - small features are ignored and not mapped Simplified - polygon feature shapes are mapped in less detail 4.

Small scale because they are encasing a much larger area. Can you give three reasons why? A large scale map. It is shows less area closer up, generally has less media deformation, and often has less generalizations.

AN INTRODUCTION TO PHONOLOGY KATAMBA PDF

## ISBN 13: 9780971764736

GIS are critical for effective resource management, and have been applied across a wide range of science, business, and government endeavors This book provides an introduction to the theory and application of GIS. This fourth edition balances theoretical and applied material, so that students may apply knowledge of GIS in the solution of real-world problems. Topics treated include an introduction to GIS, spatial data models, map projections, data entry, image data, GPS, digital data, database systems in GIS, general spatial analysis, raster analysis, terrain modeling, metadata, standards, and accuracy assessments. While this is not a textbook those who do not need complete, comprehensive understanding of geospatial science, it is the text book of choice for those who do. We teach the U.

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## ISBN 13: 9781506695877

GIS Fundamentals 5th Edition Paul Bolstad Perhaps the most useful are the book figures, made available in presentation-friendly formats. Most of the figures used in the book are organized by chapter, and may be downloaded and easily incorporated into common slide presentation packages. A few graphics are not present because I do not hold copyright, or could not obtain permission to distribute them. Sample chapters are available for download, although figure detail has been downsampled to reduce file sizes. Copies sometimes fall short, and early chapters may help during the first few weeks of class. Answers to even numbered chapter exercises are available in appendix D in the book. Answers to odd numbered exercises may be obtained with instructor resources at Xanedu.

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