See also: Islamic economics in the world A market economy was established in the Islamic world on the basis of an economic system resembling merchant capitalism. Capital formation was promoted by labour in medieval Islamic society, and financial capital was developed by a considerable number of owners of monetary funds and precious metals. The capitalists sahib al-mal were at the height of their power between the 9th—12th centuries, but their influence declined after the arrival of the ikta landowners and after production was monopolized by the state, both of which hampered the development of industrial capitalism in the Islamic world. The group had considerable influence in most important eastern markets and sometimes in politics through its financing activities and through a variety of customers , including Emirs , Sultans , Viziers , foreign merchants, and common consumers.
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His father was a clothing trader who set up a business making waterproof clothing in the Yiddish -speaking part of Paris , called the Pletzl , in the district of the Marais. They became port-of-call for other Russian exiles, most of them revolutionaries hostile to the Tsarist regime. His father tried to unionize and organize educational and other services for his working-class immigrant group. In , he helped to establish a community library, containing hundreds of works in Yiddish , Russian and French.
Rodinson grew up in a fervently Communist , non-religious and anti-Zionist family. The family was poor, so Rodinson became an errand boy at the age of 13 after obtaining a primary school certificate. In , thanks to a rule allowing persons without academic qualifications to take the competitive entrance examination, Rodinson gained entry to the Ecole des Langues Orientales and prepared for a career as a diplomat-interpreter.
He studied Arabic but later, preparing a thesis in comparative Semitics, he also learned Hebrew , which surprised his family. In , he entered the National Council of Research, became a full-time student of Islam , and joined the Communist Party. His subsequent stay in Lebanon and Syria allowed him to escape the persecution of Jews in occupied France and extend his knowledge of Islam. His parents perished in Auschwitz in Rodinson spent most of the next seven years in Lebanon, 6 as a civil servant in Beirut and six months teaching in Sidon at the Maqasid[ dubious — discuss ] high school.
According to Rodinson himself, the decision was based on his agnosticism , and he explained that being a party member was like following a religion and he wanted to renounce "the narrow subordination of efforts at lucidity to the exigencies of mobilization, even for just causes.
Five years later, he published "Islam and Capitalism", a study of the economic decline of Muslim societies. He was awarded the Prize by the Rationalist Organisation. At that time, he observed that the Palestinian struggle was a cause embraced mainly by the anti-semitic right and Maoist fringe of the left. These rights have been violated without any provocation on their part.
There is no evading this simple fact. Elsewhere, he emphasized that "my uncompromising condemnation of the errors and crimes committed under the aegis of the Zionist movement, in contradistinction to the apologies for these things by my opponents, has given me the right to criticize more or less analogous ideas and practices among the Arabs, who understandably are not interested in obviously biased discourses.
For my part, I have been able to try to explain to Arab audiences, to Arab public opinion, that the behaviour of the Zionists, although surely meriting criticism, does belong to the gamut of human conduct.
I have said and reiterated, for example before three commissions convoked by the Egyptian Popular Assembly in late , that I deplored the historical error of the creation of the state of Israel on Arab land, but that a new nationality or ethnic group with a culture of its own now exists there, and not a religious community that could as well adopt the Arabic language and Arab culture, nor a heterogeneous collection of gangs of occupiers who could be sent back where they came from with the greatest of ease.
Israel could not be regarded only as a colonial-settler state but a national fact too. Israeli Jews had collective rights that the Palestinians had to honour: If there are two or more ethnic groups in the same country, and if the danger of the domination of one by the other is to be avoided, then both these groups must be represented as distinct communities at the political level, and each must be accorded the right to defend its interests and aspirations.
That is the reason why he disagreed with the Palestinian Liberation Organisation PLO , warning them against the illusion based on the Algerian FLN guerilla warfare which had driven out French "colons".
At the same time, he urged the Israelis to stop pretending to be part of Europe and accept being a part of the Middle East , then, Israelis have to learn to live with their neighbors, by reckoning the injustices made against the Palestinians and adopting a language of conciliation and compromise.
This attempt was a rationalist study which tried to explain the economical and social origins of Islam. Rodinson tried to rise above two prejudices: the first one widespread in Europe that Islam is a brake for the development of capitalism, and the second one, widespread among Muslims, that Islam was egalitarian.
He emphasized social elements, seeing Islam as a neutral factor. Throughout all of his later works on Islam , Rodinson stressed the relation between the doctrines inspired by Muhammad and the economic and social structures of the Muslim world.
Rodinson also coined the term "theologocentrism" for the tendency to explain all empirical phenomena in the Muslim world with reference to Islam, while ignoring the role of "historical and social conditioning" in explaining events.
I do not believe that the Koran is the book of Allah. If I did, I should be a Muslim. But the Koran is there, and since I, like many other non-Muslims, have interested myself in the study of it, I am naturally bound to express my views. For several centuries the explanation produced by Christians and rationalists has been that Muhammad was guilty of falsification, by deliberately attributing to Allah his own thoughts and instructions.
Works by Maxime Rodinson[ edit ] This list refers to the English editions.
Islam and capitalism
His father was a clothing trader who set up a business making waterproof clothing in the Yiddish -speaking part of Paris , called the Pletzl , in the district of the Marais. They became port-of-call for other Russian exiles, most of them revolutionaries hostile to the Tsarist regime. His father tried to unionize and organize educational and other services for his working-class immigrant group. In , he helped to establish a community library, containing hundreds of works in Yiddish , Russian and French. Rodinson grew up in a fervently Communist , non-religious and anti-Zionist family. The family was poor, so Rodinson became an errand boy at the age of 13 after obtaining a primary school certificate.
Capitalism and Islam
Islam and Capitalism