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Which circuit is best? But if mA flows, the voltage will be higher than 5v. If mA flows the output voltage will be lower than 5v. Circuit B has the zener around the wrong way. It will only drop about 0. Circuit C will deliver 5v if the correct value zener is used and it has the correct wattage-rating. This is a wonderful advantage. But a LED has two slight differences.

It is not like a v diode but just a 5v diode. A LED can only withstand about 5v to 7v in the reverse direction before it is damaged. This means you can use a LED on any circuit up to about 5v. Now you can use all your knowledge about diodes and zeners and reference it to a LED in a circuit where less than 20mA is flowing , the voltage is less than 5v and the zener reference is 1.

This concept is NEW. It has never been explained or covered in any text book in the way we are explaining it. We have learnt that: 1. DC with ripple. An electrolytic smoothes the pulsating DC and reduces the ripple. Firstly, the zener diode and resistor work just like a dam with an overflow pipe at the top. If the water level in the dam does not reach the pipe, NO water overflows. When the water reaches the pipe, it overflows through the zener pipe.

If the water level rises further, more water flows through the zener. The height of the water is never above the small overflow pipe. The small overflow pipe is connected to the globe and the brightness of the globe is constant because the voltage on the cathode of the zener is fixed by the action of the zener diode. The mathematics to work out the value of the resistor is very complex as it involves the resistance of the resistor, its wattage and the wattage of zener.

In other words, it can only require a small current, such as a small torch globe. In other words, the voltage on the cathode of the zener will drop. The electrolytic is not connected to detect this waveform. It stores energy from the peaks and delivers the energy when the waveform drops. The result is DC with a small amount of ripple. This type of circuit is much less wasteful than the Shunt Regulator.

You can also see the current actually the voltage and the current passes through the controlling device the transistor and then the load, just like two components in SERIES.

In fact, we have a shunt situation with the zener and 1k resistor as the voltage across the 1k is 8v and this causes 8mA to flow through the 1k and thus the zener has 8mA flowing through it.

This means the output voltage will drop below When the load takes 50mA, the collector-emitter leads of the transistor deliver this current and the base takes 1mA from the zener diode.

This means the zener sees 7mA. When the load takes mA, the base takes 8mA and the zener diode gets NO current. Up to this point, the circuit works perfectly. But if you take mA, the base requires 9mA and when 9mA flows through the 1k resistor, the voltage across the resistor is 9v. The output voltage is now They share the current coming from the resistor. The globe is the LOAD. The zener should only be taking a few milliamps as this current is wasted and the zener is only required to provide a fixed voltage.

This is similar to more water flowing though the pipe containing the feed resistor and the extra water will flow though the zener. This means the current taken by the globe will remain constant. Thus any extra current can only flow though the zener. We will now change the globe for a motor: If the supply voltage remains constant and the motor takes more current, it robs the current from the zener. Up to now the voltage across the motor is constant.

When a LOAD is connected, it takes current from the zener and it can do this until almost all the current is taken. If the load is not using the current, it is being wasted through the zener. This can be ordinary diodes or zener diodes. Take the case of "power diodes. We have already mentioned that this type of diode has a voltage drop of 0. By using an extra set of four diodes in parallel with the first set, the current through each diode will be shared.

The current may not be shared equally, but it will be much less than 1amp through each diode and the overall wattage-loss will be less and this will be shared between two diodes. Overall, a very good outcome. Remove the three "rectangles. This current can be worked out by looking at the R resistor. Say this is 2mA.

The Microcontroller requires a small current to operate. Say this is 6mA. The gate driver uses 1mA. The remaining 13mA flows through the zener. Suppose the microcontroller turns ON and output line and takes an extra 13mA. The rail voltage will remain at 15v but the zener will have no part in this circuit at the moment. If the micro wants say 2 more milliamp to drive another output device the 15v rail will drop slightly. The 5v rail will remain at exactly 5v and the 15v rail will drop a small amount.

There is 22mA to share between the 4 items. This also means a diode only allows voltage to appear on the cathode when the voltage on the anode is above 0. We can use this feature to INHIBIT stop an oscillator and also produce circuits where two or more inputs determine the output of a circuit.

An animation of the circuit is available from Talking Electronics on the CD of the whole site. A gating diode can be placed on the "control line" to control inhibit the oscillator: When the gating diode is taken HIGH, the oscillator is "jammed" inhibited - frozen : The oscillator is INHIBITED In the diagram above, the voltage through the gating diode will keep the capacitor charged and prevent the IC changing state.

The oscillator produces a square-wave output. This voltage is too low for the input of the IC and thus the circuit will not change state. The gating diode is normally connected to the output of a controlling circuit, as shown below:.


Datasheet archive on 3-10-2013

It is possible that the jungle chip is using the composite video for some amount of processing, or has it affect the OSD image a little bit, even if blanking is activated. It is also possible you are experiencing signal reflection and need to fix the termination of the RGB lines. Your image is out of phase, leading the expected decoded composite signal. The outputs come off the microcontroller and go through three resistors. For the input stage, I terminated to ground with 75 ohm resistors, and fed my RGB input to a THS triple amplifier the common one popular for N64 stuff.


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