HELMINTHOSPORIUM MAYDIS PDF

There are three races of this pathogen race O, race T, and race C. Race T no longer considered a threat since the transition to normal cytoplasm corn 2. Lesion size can range from a barely visible speck up to 1. The elongated lesions along the veins are tan in color 2 and can have purplish to brown borders 1. The lesions reduce the photosynthesis leaf surface area compromising the plant normal physiology 3.

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There are three races of this pathogen race O, race T, and race C. Race T no longer considered a threat since the transition to normal cytoplasm corn 2. Lesion size can range from a barely visible speck up to 1. The elongated lesions along the veins are tan in color 2 and can have purplish to brown borders 1. The lesions reduce the photosynthesis leaf surface area compromising the plant normal physiology 3. Ecology and Spread Spores and mycelium of the pathogen survive the winter on plant debris.

Wind and water splash then disperse the spores to corn the next growing season. Primary lesions act as a source of secondary inoculum after successful infection and colonization 1,3. Spores can germinate within six hours if there is free water on the leaves and temperatures are favorable 1. The sexual phase is rarely observed in the field, but can be induced in the laboratory.

When in sexual phase pseudothecium is produced 3. Geographic Distribution The disease is a concern in all tropical and temperate regions of corn crops. Race C is found only in China 3.

Management Rotate fields for at least one year with crops other than corn. Use resistant hybrids. Start transplants with disease free seeds. Use fungicides to prevent disease at or before the time vines begin to touch within the row. Do not save seeds from fields where Bipolaris maydis has been observed. Consult your local extension specialist for legal and efficacious fungicide products available in your state. Remember, the label is the law and the product applicator is responsible for reading and following all chemical labeling.

Diagnostic Procedures The diagnosis is based on the fungal morphology. The spindle-shaped, dark brown color, and septated conidia can be easily visualized under microscope and it is characteristic of this species.

This fungus will grow well on common culture media such as PDA. Resources and References 1. Department of Crop Sciences. Common leaf blights and spots of corn. RPD No. University of Illinois Extension.

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Helmintosporiose

Class Ascomycota, subclass Dothideomycetidae, order Pleosporales, family Pleomassariaceae, genus Helminthosporium. Biological group. It is a facultative parasite. Morphology and biology. The disease affects leaves, leaf sheaths, ear, and maize grains. The lesions on leaves and ears are the main symptoms of the disease. On leaves of adult plants the grayish-red or stramineous long lesions with dark brown center appear along leaf veins, being spindle-shaped or elliptical.

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